Berlin, Germany’s capital and cultural center, dates to the 13th century. Divided during the Cold War, today it’s known for its art scene, nightlife and modern architecture, such as Mies van der Rohe’s landmark Neue Nationalgalerie. Reminders of the city’s turbulent 20th-century history include its Holocaust Memorial and the Berlin Wall’s graffitied remains. Its 18th-century Brandenburg Gate has become an iconic symbol of reunification.
Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 22–25 °C (72–77 °F) and lows of 12–14 °C (54–57 °F). Winters are cool with average high temperatures of 3 °C (37 °F) and lows of −2 to 0 °C (28 to 32 °F). Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin’s built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city’s buildings. Temperatures can be 4 °C (7 °F) higher in the city than in the surrounding areas.